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The Surgical Robot

Your Questions Answered

1. What is Urological Oncology?

Urological oncology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancers that affect the urinary system and male reproductive organs. This includes cancers of the kidneys, bladder, prostate, testicles, and other structures within the urinary and reproductive systems. Urological oncologists are highly trained in surgical and medical techniques for treating urological cancers and work closely with other specialists to provide comprehensive care to patients.

2. What is Prostate Gland?

The prostate gland is a small, walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. It is located just below the bladder, surrounding the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. The prostate gland produces and secretes a fluid that forms a part of semen, the fluid that carries sperm during ejaculation. This fluid helps nourish and protect sperm. The prostate gland undergoes changes with age and can be susceptible to various conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Regular prostate examinations are important for maintaining men's health, particularly as they get older.

3. What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the cells of the prostate gland. It is one of the most common cancers among men. Prostate cancer typically grows slowly and may not cause noticeable symptoms in its early stages. However, as the cancer advances, it can lead to symptoms such as difficulty urinating, weak urine flow, blood in the urine or semen, erectile dysfunction, and discomfort in the pelvic area. Risk factors for prostate cancer include age (it is more common in older men), family history of the disease, certain genetic mutations, and race (it is more prevalent in African-American men). However, the exact causes of prostate cancer are still not fully understood. Diagnosis of prostate cancer often involves a combination of a digital rectal exam (DRE), blood tests (such as the prostate-specific antigen or PSA test), and a prostate biopsy. Imaging tests like MRI, CT scan, or bone scan may also be used to determine the extent and spread of the cancer. Treatment options for prostate cancer depend on various factors including the stage of cancer, the aggressiveness of the tumor, and the patient's overall health. Treatment may include active surveillance (monitoring the cancer closely without immediate treatment), surgery to remove the prostate gland (prostatectomy), radiation therapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy. It's important for men to discuss with their healthcare provider about prostate cancer screening and to be aware of any symptoms or changes in their urinary or sexual health. Early detection and appropriate treatment can significantly improve the outcomes for prostate cancer patients.

4. Who is prone to develop prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer primarily affects older men, typically occurring in those over the age of 50. However, the risk increases significantly with age. Additionally, men with a family history of prostate cancer, particularly in close relatives such as fathers or brothers, are at a higher risk. Other risk factors include being of African descent, obesity, and a diet high in red meat and low in fruits and vegetables. It's important to note that having these risk factors does not guarantee the development of prostate cancer, but they may increase the likelihood. Regular screenings and discussions with a healthcare professional are essential for early detection and appropriate management.

5. Is it familial?

Having a family member with prostate cancer can increase the risk of developing the disease. The risk is higher if the affected family member is a first-degree relative such as a father or brother. However, it does not guarantee that you or your family member will develop prostate cancer. It's important to be aware of the increased risk and discuss it with your doctor. They can provide guidance on appropriate screenings and preventive measures based on your specific situation.

6. What are the stages of Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is typically staged based on the extent of the disease. The most commonly used staging system is the TNM system, which stands for Tumor, Node, and Metastasis. Here are the stages of prostate cancer according to the TNM system: 1.Stage I: The cancer is confined to the prostate gland and is too small to be felt during a digital rectal exam (DRE) or seen on imaging tests. 2.Stage II: The cancer is still within the prostate gland but is larger and may be felt during a DRE. It has not spread outside the prostate. 3.Stage III: The cancer has grown through the prostate capsule and may have invaded nearby tissues or organs, such as the seminal vesicles. 4.Stage IV: This stage is divided into two subcategories: a. Stage IVA: The cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or other nearby structures. b. Stage IVB: The cancer has spread to distant organs, such as bones, liver, or lungs. This is known as metastatic prostate cancer. It's important to note that the staging of prostate cancer can also be determined by other factors, such as the Gleason score (a measure of the cancer's aggressiveness) and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Consulting with a healthcare professional is crucial for an accurate diagnosis and proper staging of prostate cancer.

7. What diet possibly prevents developing Prostate Cancer?

While no diet can guarantee the prevention of prostate cancer, certain dietary choices may lower the risk or have potential protective effects. Some recommendations include: 1.Plant-based foods: Consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts may be beneficial. 2.Healthy fats: Opt for sources of healthy fats like avocados, olive oil, and nuts, while limiting saturated and trans fats. 3.Fish and omega-3 fatty acids: Include fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, or sardines in your diet, as they are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. 4.Tomato-based products: Some studies suggest that lycopene, found in tomatoes and tomato-based products, may be associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. 5.Cruciferous vegetables: Broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and Brussels sprouts are examples of cruciferous vegetables that contain nutrients with potential anti-cancer properties. Remember, it's always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian for personalized advice based on your specific health needs.

8. How often one should get his prostate checked?

The frequency of prostate checks depends on various factors, including your age, family history, and overall health. It's generally recommended that men discuss prostate cancer screening with their doctors to determine an appropriate schedule. In general, starting at age 50, most men are advised to consider regular prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests and digital rectal exams (DREs) every 2 years. However, if you have certain risk factors or a family history of prostate cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings. It's essential to consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

9. What is Kidney Cancer?

Kidney cancer, also known as renal cancer, refers to the development of cancerous cells in the kidneys. The kidneys are vital organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. Kidney cancer usually originates in the lining of the small tubes within the kidney and can eventually spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Symptoms may include blood in the urine, back pain, weight loss, and fatigue. Treatment options for kidney cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and sometimes chemotherapy, depending on the stage and severity of the disease. It's always important to consult with a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

10. Do All Kidney Cancers are cancerous?

No, not all kidney tumors are cancerous. There are both cancerous (malignant) and non-cancerous (benign) kidney tumors. Benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body and are generally not life-threatening, whereas malignant tumors have the potential to spread and may require treatment such as surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. If you have concerns about a kidney tumor, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment options.

11. How does Robotic Surgery help?

Robotic surgery offers several potential benefits. Here are a few ways it can help: 1.Precision: Robots can perform surgeries with enhanced precision, as they can make precise movements in tight spaces with minimal tremors. 2.Minimally invasive: Robotic surgery often involves smaller incisions compared to traditional open surgery. This can lead to less pain, reduced scarring, and faster recovery times. 3.Improved visualization: Robotic systems provide surgeons with high-definition 3D visualization of the surgical site, allowing for a better view of the targeted area. 4.Greater dexterity: The robotic arms used in surgery can mimic the movements of a surgeon's hands, but with even greater dexterity. This enables surgeons to perform complex maneuvers with more control. 5.Reduced complications: With the increased precision and enhanced visualization, robotic surgery can potentially reduce the risk of complications during procedures. It's important to note that the suitability of robotic surgery depends on the specific condition and the recommendation of your healthcare professional. They can provide you with detailed information regarding the potential benefits in your particular case.

12. What is a PSA test?

A PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) test is a blood test used to measure the level of PSA in a man's blood. PSA is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland, and its level can be elevated in various conditions affecting the prostate, including prostate cancer. The test is commonly used as a screening tool for prostate cancer, although elevated PSA levels can also be caused by non-cancerous conditions such as prostatitis or an enlarged prostate. If the PSA level is found to be high, further evaluation, such as a biopsy, may be recommended to determine the cause. It's important to consult with a healthcare professional for guidance and interpretation of PSA test results.

13. How does one diagnose prostate cancer?

The diagnosis of prostate cancer typically involves a combination of different tests and procedures. Here are some common methods used for diagnosing prostate cancer: 1.Digital rectal examination (DRE): A doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland for any abnormalities or changes in size, shape, or texture. 2.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test: This test measures the level of PSA, a protein produced by the prostate gland. Elevated PSA levels can indicate the presence of prostate cancer, although further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. 3.Biopsy: If other tests suggest the possibility of prostate cancer, a biopsy may be performed. It involves the removal of small tissue samples from the prostate gland using a thin needle. These samples are then examined under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present. Imaging tests such as ultrasound, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and CT (computed tomography) scans may also be used to assess the extent and spread of the cancer. It's important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate medical advice based on your specific situation.

14. What is involved in undergoing prostate biopsy?

During a prostate biopsy, a small tissue sample is taken from the prostate gland for further examination. Here's an overview of what's involved in undergoing a prostate biopsy: 1.Preparation: Before the biopsy, your doctor may recommend certain preparations, such as stopping blood-thinning medications and arranging for transportation after the procedure. 2.Anesthesia: Prostate biopsies are usually performed with the use of local anesthesia. You may receive a local anesthetic to numb the area around the prostate, which can be administered as an injection or gel. 3.Biopsy procedure: There are different biopsy techniques, but the most common method is a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy. A thin, ultrasound probe is inserted into the rectum to visualize the prostate gland. Guided by the ultrasound images, the doctor will insert a biopsy needle through the wall of the rectum and into the prostate to obtain small tissue samples. Typically, multiple samples are taken from different areas of the prostate to increase the chances of detecting cancer. 4.Post-procedure: After the biopsy, you may experience some discomfort or minor bleeding, which should resolve within a few days. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection. It's important to follow any post-procedure instructions provided by your healthcare team. 5.Pathology analysis: The tissue samples obtained during the biopsy will be sent to a laboratory for analysis by a pathologist. They will examine the samples under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present and provide a detailed report. It's important to discuss the procedure, potential risks, and any specific instructions with your doctor before undergoing a prostate biopsy. They will be able to provide you with personalized information based on your individual circumstances.

15. What is transperineal prostate biopsy?

Transperineal prostate biopsy is an alternative method to transrectal biopsy for obtaining tissue samples from the prostate gland. Instead of inserting the biopsy needle through the rectum, in a transperineal biopsy, the needle is inserted through the perineum, which is the area between the scrotum and anus. Here's a brief explanation of transperineal prostate biopsy: 1.Procedure: In a transperineal biopsy, you will lie on your back with your legs positioned in stirrups. The area between the scrotum and anus is cleaned and sterilized. Local anesthesia is administered to numb the perineum. 2.Guidance methods: Transperineal biopsies can be performed with or without real-time imaging guidance. Real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) or transrectal MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) can be used to guide the placement of biopsy needles accurately. Alternatively, a template with pre-drilled holes may be used to guide the needle placement. 3.Biopsy process: After numbing the perineum, a biopsy needle is inserted through the skin into the prostate gland. Multiple samples are taken from various regions of the prostate to increase the accuracy of cancer detection. The needle is then withdrawn, and the procedure is repeated for each sample. 4.Post-procedure: After the biopsy, you may experience some discomfort or swelling in the perineal area. You may be prescribed antibiotics to prevent infection. Your healthcare team will provide specific instructions for post-procedure care. Transperineal biopsy is considered an option when transrectal biopsy is difficult or poses certain risks, such as in cases of prior rectal surgery, severe rectal inflammation, or suspected rectal infection. It may also be used in cases where a more extensive biopsy or targeted sampling is required. It's important to consult with your doctor to determine the most appropriate biopsy method based on your specific situation and medical history.

16. What is proton therapy?

Proton therapy is a form of radiation therapy used in the treatment of cancer. It utilizes high-energy protons, which are charged particles, to deliver radiation to cancerous cells. Here are the key points about proton therapy: 1.Radiation delivery: Proton therapy differs from traditional radiation therapy (such as X-ray or photon therapy) in how the radiation is delivered. Protons have unique physical properties that allow them to deposit the majority of their energy precisely at a specific depth within the tissues. This characteristic makes proton therapy particularly advantageous for targeting tumors while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues. 2.Treatment process: Before receiving proton therapy, a patient typically undergoes a treatment planning process. This involves imaging scans (such as CT or MRI) to determine the size, shape, and location of the tumor. The treatment team uses this information to develop a personalized treatment plan. 3.Proton beam delivery: During treatment sessions, the patient lies on a treatment table while a machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron accelerates protons to high speeds. These protons are then delivered to the tumor site using a system of magnets that precisely control their direction and depth within the body. The energy deposited by the protons damages the DNA of the cancer cells, inhibiting their ability to multiply and survive. 4.Advantages and considerations: Proton therapy offers potential benefits, such as delivering higher doses of radiation to tumors with reduced damage to nearby healthy tissues, especially in cases where critical organs or structures are close to the tumor. However, proton therapy requires specialized facilities and equipment, making it less widely available than traditional radiation therapy options. 5.Applicability: Proton therapy is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including pediatric cancers, tumors located near critical structures (such as the brain or spinal cord), and certain adult cancers, such as prostate, lung, and head and neck cancers. It's important to note that the decision to undergo proton therapy should be made in consultation with a medical professional who can assess your specific condition and recommend the most appropriate treatment options based on your individual circumstances.

17. What is hematuria?

Hematuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in urine. It can be visible, causing the urine to appear pink, red, or cola-colored, or it can be microscopic and only detectable under a microscope. Hematuria can be caused by various factors, including urinary tract infections, kidney stones, bladder or kidney infections, trauma, certain medications, or more serious conditions such as kidney disease or bladder or kidney cancer. If you're experiencing hematuria, it's important to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

18. What are the causes of hematuria or blood in urine?

Hematuria, or blood in the urine, can have several causes. Some common causes include urinary tract infections, kidney stones, bladder or kidney infections, trauma or injury to the urinary tract, and certain medications. Other possible causes include urinary tract cancers, such as bladder or kidney cancer, inherited kidney disorders, and blood disorders. It's important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience hematuria for a proper evaluation and diagnosis.

19. How often should I get my prostate checked?

The frequency of prostate checks depends on various factors, including your age, personal medical history, and any specific risk factors you may have. It is generally recommended for men to discuss prostate screening with their healthcare provider to determine an appropriate schedule. For average-risk individuals, screenings typically begin around the age of 50. However, for those with higher risk, such as a family history of prostate cancer, screenings may start earlier. Ultimately, it's best to consult with your doctor for personalized advice based on your individual circumstances.

20. What are the stages of kidney cancer?

Kidney cancer, also known as renal cell carcinoma, is often staged using the TNM system, which stands for Tumor, Node, and Metastasis. Here are the general stages of kidney cancer: 1.Stage I: The tumor is small and confined to the kidney. It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or other organs. 2.Stage II: The tumor is larger than in Stage I but still limited to the kidney. It has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or other organs. 3.Stage III: The tumor has grown larger and may extend beyond the kidney to nearby tissues, adrenal glands, or nearby lymph nodes. It has not spread to distant organs. 4.Stage IV: The tumor has spread beyond the kidney to distant organs, such as the lungs, liver, bones, or other parts of the body. It may also involve nearby lymph nodes. In addition to the TNM staging, there may be subclassifications within each stage that provide further details about the tumor's characteristics and extent. It's important to note that staging is determined through various tests and imaging studies conducted by healthcare professionals. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with kidney cancer, it's best to consult with a healthcare provider for a detailed evaluation and personalized information about the specific stage and treatment options.

21. How is kidney cancer treated?

The treatment of kidney cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the overall health of the individual, and their preferences. Here are some common treatment options for kidney cancer: 1.Surgery: Surgery is the primary treatment for localized kidney cancer. The most common procedure is a radical nephrectomy, where the entire affected kidney, along with surrounding tissues and lymph nodes, is removed. In some cases, a partial nephrectomy may be performed, which involves removing only the tumor and a portion of the kidney. 2.Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapy uses drugs that specifically target certain molecules or pathways involved in the growth of cancer cells. These medications can help slow down the progression of advanced kidney cancer by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and cutting off their blood supply. 3.Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is a type of treatment that enhances the body's immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, are commonly used for advanced kidney cancer. 4.Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to target and destroy cancer cells. It may be used in specific cases to relieve symptoms or as a palliative treatment for advanced kidney cancer. 5.Targeted Molecular Therapies: Certain types of kidney cancer may have specific genetic mutations or alterations. In such cases, targeted molecular therapies can be used to directly attack cancer cells with those specific genetic changes. The treatment approach is best determined by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including urologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and other specialists. They will consider the individual's unique situation to develop a personalized treatment plan. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider to discuss the available options and make informed decisions based on the specific circumstances.

22. What is partial nephrectomy?

Partial nephrectomy, also known as kidney-sparing or nephron-sparing surgery, is a surgical procedure performed to remove a portion of the kidney while preserving the remaining healthy kidney tissue. It is commonly used for treating localized kidney cancer when the tumor is small and confined to a specific area of the kidney. During a partial nephrectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or side to access the kidney. The tumor, along with a margin of healthy tissue around it, is carefully removed. The remaining healthy portion of the kidney is then reconstructed and sutured to maintain its function. Partial nephrectomy has several advantages: 1.Kidney preservation: By removing only the tumor and sparing the healthy kidney tissue, partial nephrectomy aims to preserve kidney function. This is particularly important for individuals with only one functional kidney or those at risk of kidney disease. 2.Reduced risk of complications: Compared to removing the entire kidney (radical nephrectomy), partial nephrectomy carries a lower risk of certain complications, such as chronic kidney disease and the need for long-term dialysis. 3.Suitable for certain tumor characteristics: Partial nephrectomy is often recommended for smaller tumors or tumors in specific locations where preserving kidney function is feasible. After the procedure, individuals usually stay in the hospital for a few days for monitoring and recovery. They may experience temporary pain or discomfort, which can be managed with pain medications. It is essential to follow post-operative instructions, such as avoiding strenuous activities, to ensure proper healing. It's important to note that the decision to perform a partial nephrectomy is made on a case-by-case basis by a healthcare professional, taking into account factors such as tumor size, location, and individual health.

23. If I lose one kidney, will other kidney support me?

Yes, if you lose one kidney, the remaining healthy kidney can typically support your body's needs. The human body is designed with two kidneys, but in many cases, one healthy kidney can perform the functions necessary to maintain overall kidney function and meet the body's requirements for filtering waste products and regulating fluid balance. The remaining kidney will typically undergo an adaptive process called compensatory hypertrophy, where it increases in size and function to compensate for the loss of the other kidney. This adaptive response allows the remaining kidney to handle the workload previously shared by both kidneys. However, it's important to take care of your remaining kidney and maintain good overall health. This includes staying hydrated, eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and managing any underlying conditions that could affect kidney function, such as high blood pressure or diabetes. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help monitor the health of your remaining kidney and ensure any potential issues are addressed promptly. If you have concerns about kidney health or have experienced kidney loss, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional who can provide personalized advice based on your specific situation.

24. How robotic surgery benefit kidney tumor removal?

Robotic surgery can offer several benefits for kidney tumor removal, also known as robotic partial nephrectomy. Here are some of the advantages: 1.Enhanced precision: Robotic systems provide surgeons with a high-definition, 3D visualization of the surgical site. This enhanced visualization, along with the precise movements of the robotic arms, allows for greater precision during tumor removal. It enables surgeons to make precise incisions, dissect tissues with accuracy, and perform meticulous suturing. 2.Improved dexterity: Robotic surgical systems are designed to provide surgeons with enhanced dexterity and range of motion. The robotic arms can rotate and bend with greater flexibility than human hands, allowing for precise movements within the confined space of the abdomen. This dexterity facilitates meticulous tumor removal while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. 3.Reduced invasiveness: Robotic-assisted surgery is minimally invasive compared to traditional open surgery. It involves smaller incisions, which result in reduced blood loss, lower risk of infection, and faster recovery times. The smaller incisions also lead to less post-operative pain and scarring. 4.Shorter hospital stays: Due to the minimally invasive nature of robotic surgery, patients typically have shorter hospital stays compared to open surgery. This allows for a quicker recovery and return to daily activities. 5.Preservation of kidney function: Robotic partial nephrectomy aims to remove the tumor while preserving the maximum amount of healthy kidney tissue. The precise movements and magnified view provided by the robotic system aid in identifying the tumor margins accurately, allowing for targeted removal while sparing healthy kidney tissue. Preserving kidney function is particularly crucial when patients have only one functional kidney or are at risk of kidney disease. It's important to note that not all cases are suitable for robotic surgery, and the decision for the surgical approach is based on various factors, including tumor characteristics, surgeon expertise, and patient-specific considerations. Consulting with a healthcare provider or a specialist experienced in robotic surgery can provide more information and determine the most appropriate treatment approach for your specific situation.

25. How common is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is relatively rare compared to other types of cancer, but it is the most common cancer in males between the ages of 15 and 35. The exact incidence can vary depending on factors such as age, geographical location, and population demographics. Here are a few statistics regarding testicular cancer: 1.Incidence: Testicular cancer accounts for about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in males. It is estimated that approximately 1 in 263 males will develop testicular cancer during their lifetime. 2.Age distribution: Testicular cancer primarily affects young and middle-aged men. The highest incidence is seen in males aged 20 to 34, with the risk decreasing gradually after the age of 35. 3.Global variation: Testicular cancer rates can vary between countries. Generally, higher rates are observed in developed countries, such as the United States, Canada, and Northern Europe, while lower rates are seen in some Asian and African countries. 4.Survival rates: The prognosis for testicular cancer is generally quite good. The five-year survival rate for localized testicular cancer (confined to the testicles) is over 95%. Even for cases that have spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites, the overall survival rate is relatively high, with effective treatment options available. It's important to note that early detection and prompt medical attention play a crucial role in the successful treatment of testicular cancer. Regular self-examination of the testicles and seeking medical advice for any concerning symptoms, such as a painless lump, swelling, or changes in testicular size, texture, or shape, can help in early detection. If you have any concerns or suspect any abnormalities, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider for further evaluation and guidance.

26. Is testis cancer curable?

Yes, testicular cancer is highly curable, especially when diagnosed and treated at an early stage. The overall cure rate for testicular cancer is one of the highest among all types of cancer. The prognosis and treatment outcomes depend on several factors, including the stage and type of testicular cancer, as well as individual characteristics. The most common type of testicular cancer is germ cell tumors, which can be further classified into seminomas and non-seminomas. Both types have high cure rates. Testicular cancer treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the stage and specific characteristics of the tumor. Here are some key points about the curability of testicular cancer: It's important to note that each individual's case is unique, and the treatment approach is tailored to their specific situation. Regular follow-up visits with healthcare providers, adherence to recommended treatment plans, and ongoing surveillance are crucial for long-term management and monitoring of testicular cancer. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with testicular cancer, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider experienced in treating the disease. They can provide personalized information and guidance based on the specific circumstances.

27. What is a Cystoscopy?

A cystoscopy is a medical procedure that involves examining the inside of the bladder and urethra using a thin, flexible tube called a cystoscope. The cystoscope is inserted through the urethra and allows the doctor to visually inspect the lining of the bladder for abnormalities such as inflammation, tumors, or stones. Cystoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, to collect tissue samples (biopsies), or to perform certain treatments, like removing bladder stones or treating small bladder tumors. It is typically performed under local or general anesthesia, depending on the specific circumstances.

28. What procedures surgical robot can perform?

Surgical robots can perform a wide range of procedures, depending on their capabilities and the specific system being used. Some common procedures that surgical robots are involved in include: 1.Minimally Invasive Surgery: Robotic systems can assist in performing laparoscopic or keyhole surgeries with smaller incisions, allowing for reduced scarring and faster recovery times. 2.Cardiac Surgery: Surgical robots can assist in various cardiac procedures, such as mitral valve repair or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). 3.Orthopedic Surgery: Robotic systems can aid in joint replacement surgeries, assisting surgeons in achieving greater precision during the procedure. 4.Gynecological Surgery: Robotic-assisted systems can be used in procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, or endometriosis treatment, providing improved visualization and dexterity. 5.Urological Surgery: Robotic technology is commonly used in prostatectomies (removal of the prostate gland) and other urological procedures, offering enhanced precision and improved outcomes. 6.Neurosurgery: Some specialized surgical robots assist in neurosurgical procedures, such as brain tumor resection or deep brain stimulation (DBS) for conditions like Parkinson's disease. It's important to note that the availability of specific robotic systems and their capabilities may vary across hospitals and surgical centers. Surgeons determine the most appropriate use of robotic assistance based on individual patient needs and surgical expertise.

29. Is orthopaedic robot same as daVinci?

No, an orthopedic robot is not the same as the da Vinci Surgical System. While both technologies have been used in medical settings, they serve different purposes. The da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic surgical system primarily used for minimally invasive procedures across various surgical specialties. On the other hand, orthopedic robots are specifically designed for orthopedic surgeries, such as joint replacements, and assist surgeons in achieving greater precision and accuracy during these procedures.

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