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Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is a relatively rare but highly treatable type of cancer that develops in the testicles, the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and hormones. Here's important information about testicular cancer:

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Testicular Cancer


While the exact cause of testicular cancer is often unknown, there are some risk factors associated with it, including:

  • Cryptorchidism: An undescended testicle (testicle that hasn't descended into the scrotum).

  • Family history of testicular cancer.

  • Previous history of testicular cancer.

  • Age: It most commonly affects young men between the ages of 15 and 40.


Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer may include:

  • A painless lump or swelling in the testicle.

  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.

  • Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum.

  • A change in the size or shape of the testicle.

  • A dull ache or pain in the lower abdomen or groin.


A doctor will conduct a physical examination, and additional tests may include an ultrasound to visualize the testicle and blood tests to check for tumor markers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). A biopsy is typically avoided as it can potentially spread cancer.


Staging helps determine the extent and severity of the cancer. Testicular cancer is usually staged from I to III, with Stage I being confined to the testicle and Stage III indicating spread to distant organs or lymph nodes.


Treatment for testicular cancer depends on the stage, type of cancer, and other factors. Common treatment options include:

  • Surgery: Surgical removal of the affected testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is often the first step for both diagnosis and treatment.

  • Radiation Therapy: High-energy beams used to target and kill cancer cells, less commonly used.

  • Chemotherapy: Medications to kill cancer cells; this is a standard treatment for more advanced cases.

  • Surveillance: In some early-stage, low-risk cases, active surveillance may be recommended, involving regular check-ups and monitoring without immediate treatment.


Testicular cancer has one of the highest cure rates among all cancers, especially when diagnosed early. Even advanced cases have a good prognosis with appropriate treatment.


After treatment, regular follow-up visits are essential to monitor for cancer recurrence and address any potential side effects or long-term issues related to fertility and hormone levels.

It's crucial for men to perform regular testicular self-exams and seek medical attention if they notice any unusual changes or symptoms in their testicles. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to successful outcomes in testicular cancer cases.

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