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Kidney (Renal) Cancer

Renal cancer, also known as kidney cancer, is a type of cancer that originates in the kidneys, which are vital organs responsible for filtering waste and excess fluids from the bloodstream. Here is some key information about renal cancer:

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Kidney (Renal) Cancer

The most common type of renal cancer is renal cell carcinoma (RCC), accounting for about 90% of all cases. There are several subtypes of RCC, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and others.



Various factors may increase the risk of developing renal cancer, including smoking, obesity, high blood pressure (hypertension), family history of kidney cancer, and certain genetic syndromes.


In its early stages, renal cancer may not cause noticeable symptoms. As it progresses, common symptoms can include blood in the urine (hematuria), persistent pain in the side or lower back, a lump or mass in the abdomen, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, and fever.


Diagnostic tests for renal cancer include imaging studies such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound. A biopsy may be performed to confirm the presence of cancer by examining a tissue sample from the kidney.


Staging determines the extent of the cancer's spread. Renal cancer is typically categorized into stages I to IV, with early-stage cancer confined to the kidney (Stage I) and advanced stages indicating spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant organs.


Treatment for renal cancer depends on the stage and type of cancer. Common treatment options include:

  • Surgery: Surgical removal of part or all of the affected kidney (nephrectomy) is often the primary treatment for localized renal cancer.

  • Targeted Therapy: Medications that target specific molecules involved in cancer growth and progression.

  • Immunotherapy: Drugs that enhance the body's immune system to fight cancer..

  • Radiation Therapy: High-energy radiation beams to kill cancer cells (less commonly used for kidney cancer).


The prognosis for renal cancer varies based on the stage at diagnosis and other factors. Early-stage kidney cancer often has a more favorable prognosis. Survival rates improve with early detection and appropriate treatment.


Regular follow-up visits are essential to monitor for cancer recurrence and manage potential side effects of treatment.

It's important for individuals with symptoms or risk factors for renal cancer to seek medical evaluation and consultation with a healthcare provider. Early detection and timely treatment can significantly impact the outcome and quality of life for individuals diagnosed with renal cancer.

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